Proportionalism as an Integral and Holistic Ethical Methodology

  • Ma Christina A Astorga Duquesne University
Keywords: PROPORTIONALIST DEBATE, Proportionalism


Over the past three decades, the debate on proportionalism had generated voluminous amounts of literature. The rhetoric of the debate had sometimes been inflammatory, yielding more heat than light, but nonetheless the issues and questions it engaged in were of significant importance.

Author Biography

Ma Christina A Astorga, Duquesne University

Dr Ma. Christina A. Astorga was the former Chair of the Theology Department of the Ateneo de Manila University and professor of Moral Theology at the Loyola School of Theology. Prior to her present position as the Founding Director of the Center for the Study of Catholic Social Thought at Duquesne University, she was a Visiting Scholar at Weston Jesuit School of Theology, a Fellow at Boston College and Georgetown University, and a Visiting Professor at Canisius College and University of San Diego. Her key works had been published in Theological Studies, Horizons, Concilium, Journal of Loyola School of Theology, and Budhi. Her book, The Beast, The Harlot, and The Lamb: Faith Confronts Systemic Evil, won the National Book Award in Theology in the Philippines. She is presently completing her book, Vision, Norm, and Choice: A Proposed Contemporary Paradigm for Theological Ethics for Orbis Press. She is a member of the Editorial Board of the Society of Christian Ethics. E-mail:


Edward Vacek, “Proportionalism: One View of the Debate,” Theological Studies 46 (1985).

Aline Kalbian, “Where Have All the Proportionalists Gone?” Journal of Religious Ethics 30.1 (2002).

John Mahoney, The Making of Moral Theology, Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1987.

Peter Knauer, “The Hermeneutical Function of the Principle of Double Effect” in Proportionalism For/Against, ed. by Christopher Kaczor, Milwaukee, Wisconsin: Marquette University Press, 2000.

Lisa Sowle Cahill, “Contemporary Challenges to Exceptionless Moral Norms”in The Pope John Center, Moral Theology Today: Certitudes and Doubts, Saint Louis, Missouri: The Pope John XXIII Medical Moral Research and Education Center, 1984.

Philip Keane, Sexual Morality: A Catholic Perspective, New York: Paulist Press, 1997.

“Incommensurability and Indeterminancy in Moral Choices” in Richard A. McCormick and Paul Ramsey, eds., Doing Evil to Achieve Evil, Chicago: Loyola University Press, 1978.

Vincent MacNamara, Love, Law, and Christian Life: Basic Attitudes of Christian Morality, Welmington, Delaware: Michael Glazier, 1988.

John Langan, “Direct and Indirect—Some Recent Exchange Between Paul Ramsey and Richard McCormick,” Religious Studies Review (April 1979).

“Reproductive Technologies: Ethical Issues,” Encyclopedia of Bioethics, ed., W. T. Reich, New York: Free Press, 1978.

Garth Hallett, Christian Moral Christian: An Analytic Guide, Notre Dame: University of Notre Dame Press, 1983.

Garth Hallett, Christian Moral Christian: An Analytic Guide, Notre Dame: University of Notre Dame Press, 1983.

Richard McCormick, Health and Medicine on the Catholic Tradition, New York: Crossroad, 1984.

How to Cite
Astorga, M. C. A. (2010). REVISITING THE PROPORTIONALIST DEBATE. Asian Horizons, 4(02), 416-427. Retrieved from